# Identify the two variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, and scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio).

During this week you will identify a research question created in Week 1 for which correlation or regression would be the best statistical approach to take. If you do not have a research question that indicates correlation or regression, review the research questions posted by your peers last week and select one that is ideal for correlation or regression.

Discussion Assignment Requirements

Initial Posting – In your initial posting for this assignment, include the following:

- Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of correlation and regression to answer.
- Describe why this question is appropriate for a correlational study.
- Identify the two variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, and scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio).
- Do the variables fit the qualifications of a correlational study? Explain.
- What type of correlation would you expect to find for this study (i.e., positive or negative)? Explain.
- What predictions might you be interested in making with these variables if the correlation is found to be significant?

WEEK-1—RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

**1.** **How does the employees’ motivation affect the organization Productivity?**

In this research, there are two main variables that are an independent variable which in this case are the motivational factors for employees which include favorable working environment, compensation strategy, business culture, and the management strategy. The dependent variable in this study is the organization productivity. The best effective scale for measuring these variables is an ordinal scale basically because some variables have more impacts than the others.

**2.** **What are the factors that affect the patient’s reaction to treatment?**

The variables in these case include the type of medication, the lifestyle of the patient and the degree of the effect of the health condition has affected the patient. These variables have a different effect on the patient’s reaction to treatment, the variables are categorical in nature. In this case, the most effective measurement scale is the ordinal scale as well (Celli, Decramer, Wedzicha, Wilson, Agustí, Criner & Vogelmeier, 2015).

**3.** **Does the increase in gun ownership affect the crime level in the society?**

This question has several variables that increase in criminal-related deaths, criminal activities, assault cases. A rational scale level of measurement can be used in this research because of the nature of these variables. The variables depict some categorical characteristics they have different degrees of impact on the dependent variable in the question.

**4.** **How does the school environment affect the student performance?**

The security level in the school, the type of rules and the consequences of going against the rules and the level of strictness of the teacher in the school are the main variables in the research question. The rules and regulations are can be grouped into some category as well as the level of strictness of the teachers another subordinate staff, in this case, the best scale of measurement to be used is the ordinal scale. The variables also have some categorical characteristics they are not numerical.

**5.** **What is the probability that randomly selected teenager watches movie over three times in a week?**

The possibility or the variables, in this case, is that the student watches three times, less, or even more in a week. In this case, the main scales of measurement will be internal level, this is basically because they can be quantified but the decimal or rather the zero point is not relevant to the study or rather is meaningless (Pratt, 2015).

**6.** **Is there any relationship between the traffic congestion and the price of fuel? **

The research questions in this have only one variable of interest which is the fuel prices which may or may not affect the traffic congestion. This is a question that is meant towards finding the if there is a relationship between the variables in the study. The level of measurement, in this case, is, therefore, an ordinal scale. The data, in this case, may have some continuous characteristics.

**7.** **Is there any relationship between gender and student performance in statistics and science subjects?**

The variables, in this case, will be the average performance of the students in the subjects of focus, they will be categorized according to their gender. These variables can actually be measured using the ratio level of measurements by some mathematical operations. In this case, an average will be calculated of both genders performance on the subjects being studied. The data in this study will depict some continuous characteristics.

**8.** **How does the training frequency affect muscle growth for bodybuilders?**

The variables, in this case, are time, the intensity of training and the diet. These are the three basic factors that affect muscle growth. These variables can be measured using some interval level of scale because they affect muscle growth differently in bodybuilders. This scale will be giving some difference in categories in the manner they affect the dependent variable here which is muscle growth. The data, in this case, will be analyzed mathematically and so will give some discrete results (Sahin, Serdar, Serteser, Unsal & Ozpinar, 2018).

**9.** **What is the relationship between mortality rates and poverty level?**

This research question is intended to establish the existence of any relationship between the mortality rates within a population and the poverty level of that population. The variables in these case will be poverty and death rate which will be measured using the ordinal level scale because it will be giving the degree to which these variables affect each other. The variables, in this case, will be having some continuous characteristics because they rise and fall at some level.

**10.** **How does technological development impact learning in schools?**

This research question has two directions, that is, the dependent variable may affect the independent in two ways either positively or negatively. The variables, in this case, will include the teaching techniques used by the teachers, the accessibility of the learning materials and so on this will have some positive impact on the learning processes. These variables will be measured using the ordinal level scale because they will be categorized and rated on the impact they have on the subject of study.

**References**

Pratt, M. G. (2015). Crafting and Selecting Research Questions and Contexts in Qualitative Research. *Handbook of Qualitative Organizational Research: Innovative Pathways and Methods*, 177.

Celli, B. R., Decramer, M., Wedzicha, J. A., Wilson, K. C., Agustí, A., Criner, G. J., … & Vogelmeier, C. (2015). An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. *American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine*, *191*(7), e4-e27.

Sahin, O. N., Serdar, M., Serteser, M., Unsal, I., & Ozpinar, A. (2018). Vitamin D levels and parathyroid hormone variations of children living in a subtropical climate: a data mining study. *Italian Journal of Pediatrics*, *44*(1), 40.

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## Resources

### Required Text

Sukal, M. (2013). Research methods: Applying statistics in research. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Chapter 9: Correlation

Chapter 10: Linear Regression

Carruthers, M. W., Maggard, M. (2012). SmartLab: A Statistics Primer. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Lesson 3: Charts and Graphs in Statistics

Lesson 9: Correlation and Regression

SMARTLab Tests: The SMARTLab is a self-paced, online basic statistics course designed to prepare you for your graduate courses and graduate research.

Lesson 3: Graphs

Lesson 9: Correlation and Regression

### Required References

UIS. (n.d.). How to critique a journal article. Retrieved from https://otpod.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/jrnlcrtq.pdf (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Wagenheim, M., & Anderson, S. (2008). Theme park employee satisfaction and customer orientation. Managing Leisure, 13, 242-257. doi: 10.1080/13606710802200944

### Recommended References

American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

Consortium for Mathematics and its Applications & Chedd-Angier (Producers). (1989). Against all odds: Inside statistics. Available from http://www.learner.org/resources/series65.htm (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.l

Cengage Learning (2005). Research Methods Workshops. Available from: http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/workshops/resch_wrk.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Cengage Learning (2005). Statistics Workshops. Available from: http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/workshops/stats_wrk.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Easton, V. J., & McColl, J. H. (1997). STEPS: Statistics Glossary v1.1. Retrieved from University of Glasgow Web site: Basic Definitions: http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps/glossary/basic_definitions.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Kahn, J. (n.d.). Reporting statistics in APA style. Retrieved from http://my.ilstu.edu/~jhkahn/apastats.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Lowry, R. (2011). Chapter 3: Introduction to correlation & regression. In Concepts & applications of inferential statistics. Retrieved from http://vassarstats.net/textbook/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Neill, J. (2010). University of Canberra. Correlation. Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/jtneill/linear-correlation (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Online Stat Book (2008). Retrieved from Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics Web site:…