BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS HOMOGENEITY

BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS AND HOMOGENEITY

BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS AND HOMOGENEITY

TABLE 2

BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS AND HOMOGENEITY OF THE TREATMENT AND CONTROL GROUPS

Intervention (n = 21)Control (n = 20)CharacteristicMean ± SD Mean ± SD t or χ2 a

Anthropometric Age (years)65.95 ± 8.5966.35 ± 7.940.154 Height (cm)152.33 ± 6.53150.57 ± 6.010.896 Weight (kg)57.90 ± 10.8554.66 ± 9.481.016 BMI (kg/m2)24.17 ± 3.1423.38 ± 3.320.782Lifestyle Years since menopause20.21 ± 10.4417.5 ± 11.050.767 Calcium-rich food intake (times/week)27.3 ± 11.423.8 ± 8.81.110 Vitamin D-rich food intake (times/week)2.4 ± 2.53.1 ± 3.10.705Intervention (n = 21) Control (n = 20) Characteristic n % n % t or χ2 a History of fracture8385251.026 Regular exercise (≥3 times/week)4194200.006 Non-drinker (alcohol)2095201000.024 Non-smoker21100201000.024Bone statusb Normal (T ≥ −1.0)6294201.995 Osteopenia (−1.0 > T > −2.5)8381260 Osteoporosis (T ≤ −2.5)733420Intervention (n = 21) Control (n = 20) Characteristic Mean ± SD Mean ± SD t or χ2 a BMD Lumbar 2–40.83 ± 0.120.85 ± 0.200.526 Femur neck0.67 ± 0.150.67 ± 0.130.055Bone biomarkers Serum osteocalcin (ng/ml)13.97 ± 4.9015.85 ± 5.641.135 Serum calcium (mg/dl)9.47 ± 0.409.54 ± 0.590.405 Serum phosphorus (mg/dl)3.68 ± 0.443.70 ± 0.500.165 Serum alkaline phosphatase (IU/L)68.43 ± 21.5266.70 ± 13.240.308 Serum 25-OH-Vitamin D (ng/ml)14.03 ± 4.3412.38 ± 4.651.177 Urine deoxypyridinoline (nM/mM creatinine)5.70 ± 1.705.95 ± 1.120.555

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a All group differences p > 0.05.

b Defined from T-score of femur neck site based on World Health Organization criteria.

Note. SD, standard deviation; BMD, bone mineral density (g/cm2).

Oh, E. G., Yoo, J. Y., Lee, J. E., Hyun, S. S., Ko, I. S., & Chu, S. H. (2014). Effects of a three-month therapeutic lifestyle modification program to improve bone health in postmenopausal Korean women in a rural community: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Nursing & Health, 37(4), p. 297.

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Study Questions

1. What demographic variables were described in this study?

2. Which variable was measured at the ordinal level? Provide a rationale for your answer.

3. What level of measurement is the data for history of fracture? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. What statistics were calculated to describe history of fracture? Were these appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.

5. Could a mean be calculated on the history of fracture data? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6. What statistics were calculated to describe the regular exercise (≥3 times per week) for the intervention and control groups? Calculate the frequency and percentage of the total sample who exercised regularly. Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a percent.

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7. What statistics were calculated to describe age in this study? Were these appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.

8. Were the intervention and control groups significantly different for age? Provide a rationale for your answer.

9. What was the mode for bone status for the total sample (N = 41)? Determine the frequency and percentage for the bone status mode for the sample. Round your answer to the nearest whole percent. Why is this clinically important?

10. Based on the bone status of the study participants, discuss the clinical importance of this study. Document your response.

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Answers to Study Questions

1. Demographic variables described in the study were age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle (years since menopause, calcium-rich food intake, vitamin D-rich food intake), history of fracture, regular exercise, alcohol consumption, and smoking. You might have identified the bone status, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone biomarkers but these are dependent variables for this study (Grove et al., 2013).

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